MDF
# 2 (57), 15 July -15 August, 2015

Main Observations

In the period from 15 Julyto 15 August the following facts have been noted: encouragement of violence mainly towards the National Movement members: (7); xenophobia - 12, including 4 instances of Turkophobia; unfounded statements regarding ethnic identity -2; religious discrimination -5, including 1 instance of an official violating religious neutrality towards the Jehovah Witnesses; homophobia - 49; anti-Western sentiments - 39, which were mainly related to the decision by the US Supreme

Court to recognize LGBT marriage as a constitutional right; gender stereotypes, sexism - 16.

Russian-language sources: factroom.ru, vlasti.net, myjane.ru, bublik.delfi.ee, tainamira.ru, etotupo.ru. The Russian-language sources were mainly used by the newspapers Alia and Kviris Chronia to spread gender stereotypes and homophobic propaganda.

Encouragement of violence

Interpressnews, Imedi, Chronika, 22 July, Prime Time, 27 July

Zaza Papuashvili, Georgian Dream: „They [the Nationals] should be getting their face broken day and night“.

Asaval-Dasavali, 3-9 August

Rezo Amashukeli, poet: „I will tell you directly – I was pleased and glad that my godson Busa Zhvania [son of Zurab Zhvania, former Prime Minister] beat Baramidze. In fact, Baramidze should be not just beaten but killed, because this is not a man!

Asaval-Dasavali, 20-26 July

Dito Chubinidze, journalist: „On 27 June 2010, near Trabzon, in the ancient Laz town Unie he [Tornike Lortkipanidze] manly accomplished a holy mission and killed his father’s murdered – 38-year old Hasan Savash.“

Xenophobia: parties

Obiektivi, Night Studio, 13 August

Irma Inashvili, Patriots Alliance: „Iranians took our land, with a many-years rent. I am employed there, and how cannot we take care of our land, why cannot we work out the laws making the Georgian the landlord on Georgian land?... Let’s count how many thousands of hectares Iranians have by rent in Sagarejo and how many Georgians are working on that lands like slaves? Whose are the pastures?.. Thank you very much, but they bring free laborers from China and India.“

Xenophobia: media

Obiektivi, Night Studio, 13 August

Bondo Mdzinarashvili, journalist: „I am saying without any xenophobia, and a Kakhetian works for an Iranian in Kakheti, this is a disaster for our country.“

Obiektivi, Night Studio, 18 July

Magda Kotrikadze, lawyer, Obiektivianchor: Healthy World [an NGO]… which received financing by the [CEC Center] project, for the project named “Awareness of the Roma community on the electoral issues”. Now, how does anyone imagine… [laughs]… SO they want to educate these people in the election issues, have trainings for them, and?!“..

Maka Razmadze, journalist: Why the Roma, there are people of other ethnicities living here too?“

Kavkasia, Spektri, 12 August

David Akubardia, journalist: „...They were some Chinese or some morons, I don’t remember exactly… 

Zaza, look at Kakheti. The Georgians are decreasing, Azeris are increasing, 2 years ago demographic situation in Rustavi was very different from what it is today.“

Xenophobia: society

Kavkasia, Spektri, 27 July

Ramaz Sakvarelidze, psycologist: „... That is why [Mikheil Saakashvili] wanted visa-free travel with Europe, for huge wave of emigrants to leave the country and for Indians, Chinese and people from such sort of countries to come here. This sort of people would not ask him to answer for anything as a ruler.

Turkophobia: media

Kavkasia, Spektri, 12 August

David Akubardia, anchor: „If we decrease, the Turk will sit on our heads. Is he not doing this already? Aren’t they coming? We’ll be a minority“.

Turkophobia: society

Kviris Palitra, 10 August

Soso Pavliashvili, singer: „As I know, the country’s lands are sold to the Muslims… That there are so many Turks in Adjara will bring terrible results. The Muslims have plans of their own… Look what is happening in the East.“

Geworld.ge, 5 August

Hamlet Chipashvili, political observer: „When my friends call me from Adjara, you know what they tell me? They say we are calling you from Turkey. Adjara has in fact been turned into Turkey… Turks are different, they will make us suffer for all this, that is why a policy like the one Aslan Abashidze had was needed.“.

Unfounded statements regarding ethnic identity

Interpressnews, 11 August, Alia, 12 August

While covering the incident when a police officer was wounded in Phonichala, the agency states the suspect’s ethnic identity (“Also, some of the witnesses say that the arrested person is Azeri“), which is irrelevant while reporting in a criminal incident.

Recommendation: Identification of ethnic or other identity of a person while reporting on crimes is acceptable only if the crime in question is directly linked to the person’s identity.Otherwise, by stating ethnicity, which is a sphere of self-identification, the media associates with crime and stigmatizes a particular group.

Violation of religious neutrality: official

Maestro, 9 o’clock News, 27 July

Temur Japaridze, Head of Terjola Municipality: „The congregation wanted us to provide alternative place [for construction of religious building of Jehovah’s Witnesses in Terjola]. They were told we would take part in the construction, help physically, they would not be hindered anyway, but not in the town center, in other place. But for some reason they stubbornly cling to this place."

Religious discrimination: media

Obiektivi, Night Studio, 5 August

Bondo Mdzinarashvili, journalist: „I agree that there are many things that are not pretty, but if we consider that compared to the sects our Orthodox Christianity stands as high as Earth compared to a worm, such are its heights. Or, for instance, like mountain Ushba compared to a small hill, so in this case we can say we are still the survivors. I mean the sects, so from this viewpoint our Orthodox Church is really on the heights.“

Obiektivi, Night Studio, 25 July

Gia Areshidze, journalist: „All sects are groupings, Jehovah’s Witnesses and others.“

Homophobia: parties

Asaval-Dasavali, 20-26 July

Tamaz Mechiauri, Georgian Dream: "Of course, I am categorically against legalization of the same-sex marriage.This is against our traditions and religion. Same-sex marriage violates the rights of children that must grow up in such families. Unfortunately, while the people of different sexual orientation and defenders of their rights had been only defending their own rights until now, this time they are launching a very aggressive attack and even insulting the Patriarch.That is why it is possible that these people will soon demand legalization of the same-sex marriage."

Prime Time, 27 July

Luka Kurtanidze, Georgian Dream: „We are talking about protection of minorities’ rights, protection of sexual minority, but who will defend the rights of men?! Will the men’s rights will be fully protected in this country?“ 

Asaval-Dasavali, 20-26 July

Soso Jachvliani, Georgian Dream:You will laugh, but in our filming team we had seven people of untraditional sexual orientation. Can any of them say that Soso Jachvliani beat him or insulted him because of sexual orientation?! Know that Soso Jachvliani will be the first one against this law, and damn Soso Jachvliani if he ever support legalization of the same-sex marriages!"

Kviris Chronika, 27 July -2 August

Irma Inashvili, Patriots Alliance: „The Nationals and their NGOs are discrediting Western values, Europe and America in Georgia, when they desperately defend gay parades and same-sex marriages which are absolutely unacceptable for the Georgian mentality, and justify it by liberalism. Those who are familiar with the Western way of life know well that gay marriages are not really popular there and this is not imposed on the society, while inviting such people to the talk shows on TV is impossible.“

Geworld.ge, 22 July

Guram Palavandishvili, Burjanadze-United Democrats: For sodomy to be unacceptable to you, you don’t have to be Orthodox Christian and leave religiously. This is such a disgusting sin that it is equally unacceptable for Christians and for any other normal person, including atheists.“

Geworld.ge, 12 August

Akaki Asatiani, Traditionalists Union: Incest, same-sex marriage, pedophilia, and such unnatural actions that are against God must be prohibited, but prohibiting a TV channels has never brought any good.

Asaval-Dasavali, 20-26 July

Elizbar Javelidze, People’s Assembly: Legalization of same-sex marriage in America has put us in grave danger! This is an attack against God! I will remind those over here who were very happy about legalization of same-sex marriage in America about what happened in Tbilisi on 13 June! And if you continue blasphemy like this, much worse than the tragedy in the Vera gorge will happen!

Asaval-Dasavali, 10-16 August

Kakha Kukava, Free Georgia: „They want to be with Europe and Russia at the same time! They want both sodomites and writing the unacceptability of the same-sex marriages into the Constitution!

Homophobia: government

Asaval-Dasavali, 20-26 July

Alexander Chikaidze, Deputy Secretary of the National Security and Crisis Management Council, former Minister of Internal Affairs: „With my understanding and consciousness I cannot accept and I protest the families in Georgia being created as a result of marriage of a man to another man, and woman to another woman!“

Homophobia: media

Obiektivi, Night Studio, 31 July

Nino Mikiashvili, anchor: "You know what was the reaction to adoption of this law in some [American] states, the law by which they legalized this filth, so this is not acceptable for everyone there too… Demonstration of immorality and what America has done are unacceptable“.

Obiektivi, Night Studio, 1 August

Maka Razmadze, anchor: „What human rights are we talking about, what gays are we talking about and whom are we protecting, when regular human is not protected here and they pick him from his neighborhood just because he smoked marihuana some time ago.“

Obiektivi, Night Studio, 25 July

Gia Areshidze, anchor: „Of course everywhere exists sodomy and lesbian love… but these people are not supported on such level by the NGOs and courts and government, like this is happening in the modern West.“

Asaval-Dasavali, 20-26 July

Giorgi Gigauri, journalist: Legalization of same-sex marriage in USA excited not just pederasts there, but also the Satanists! And this is not surprising, because Satanism and pederasty are very close to each other“!

Asaval-Dasavali, 10-16 August

Giorgi Gigauri, journalist: „I don’t’ care if anything can happen in this country and Jamlet may make Bondo pregnant!.. All this – being pederasts and whores are personal choices and personal life, in a closed private space!.. But when these pederasts and whores act under the open sky, at the Kazantip organized with government support, then I have a logical question: do we need a government for this?!“

Kviris Chronika, 27 July -2 August

Source: factroom.ru

„What is common between snakes and gays? Both are really disgusting for some, and are not for others.“... „Perhaps, the capability to recognize a man with untraditional sexual orientation was given to the women ready for motherhood in order for them to avoid losing precious time.“ 

Kviris Chronika, 27 July -2 August

Source: vlasti.net

HeadlineIn South Africa gays and lesbians are cured by… gang rape

„Cases of gang rapes of people of untraditional orientation have widely spread in South Africa lately, the goal being to correct their anti-social behavior."

Saqinform, 10 August

Arno Khidirbegishvili, Saqinformi editor: „No mystery fiction story can compare to the “TV 2” bloody and dirty history, which from the beginning of the 21st century hypnotizes the people of Georgia 24-hours a day: Saakashvili is good, others are bad, Ameica is good, Russia is bad, the pederasts are good, Ilia II is bad!“..

„Unfortunately, the law does not envision measures against the media outlets which are engaged in the anti-state propaganda, LGBT values propaganda, popularization of immorality and arbitrariness“...

Saqinform, 20 July

Arno Khidirbegishvili, Saqinformi editor: "Other provocation is also planned during the days of the Olympias:Two organizations with the same ideology – the National Movement and LGBT society - will try to hold a gay parade in Tbilisi, so that some pederast, lesbian and their leader – the parade’s main organizer Barnov – get hit with a stool and the world get astonished by “Ivanishvili-Garibashvili government which persecutes sexual minorities”!“

Geworld.ge, 5 August

Armaz Saneblidze, journalist: “LGBT youth centers are now open all over the “civilized world”. It is no secret that in that places experienced dirty people find young partners for the satisfaction of their perverted proclivities“.

...So, healing a person from this illness is as necessary as from all other illnesses. The medicine has to find the ways and means to cure this.“.

Geworld.ge, 22 July

Giorgi Gachechiladze, journalist: „Only with unity, united effort can we stand against this terrible calamity, which USA threatens to spread, and which is going to make Georgians disappear as a nation“.

Geworld.ge, 22 July

Zurab Tsutskiride, journalist: „Homosexuality is not a normal thing, because it is against the laws of nature, an anomaly… There exist organizations for protection of rights of people with anomalous sexual orientation, but why does not anyone protect the rights of people with anomalous state of their health? Why no one holds rallies to protest against the restrictions that exist against people with tuberculosis, typhus, cholera, etc.? But this is not surprising, since they have taken homosexuality out of the list of illnesses, but included into this list… love… Yes, yes, Love!“

Homophobia: clerics

Asaval-Dasavali, 20-26 July

Elizbar Diakonidze, cleric: "I prefer to sacrifice myself rather than have a religious same-sex wedding, which the state is going to legalize today or tomorrow! Where are the people who sat in sessions in traditional closes, but now are silent?"

Geworld.ge, 5 August

Giorgi (Razmadze), the chief priest of Avchala St. Ketevan Church: „As to legalization of same-sex marriages, I want to ask those who consider sodomy to be a normal thing: if this is not an illness, why is it that they don’t take blood donations from the people with this perversity?“

Homophobia: non-government organizations

Geworld.ge, 22 July

Alexander Chachia, Globalization Problems Research Center: „American Gore Vidal is talented writer, but his novels are open propaganda of pederasty. Such work should not get to the book market“...

„The people wanted to change the government so that gay parades are not held in Georgia, the TV channels don’t corrupt the youth, state agencies protect traditional moral values, moral norms“...

Geworld.ge, 6 August

Konstantine Chikviladze, Eurasia Institute: „The pederasts have involved into their perverse way of life many people who by their nature are bisexual...Propaganda of homosexuality has become a mechanism of political influence – certain forces do their best, there is an active effort to imprint homosexuality into the national mentality. The fight around the pederast values can be called the strategy of political expansion.“

Homophobia: society

Geworld.ge, 29 July

Givi Sikharulidze, actor: „If you ask me, there must be as many Russian TV channels as possible and this is why: to say the truth, I don’t believe in politics, but after Putin said he would not allow homosexuality in his country, marriage of a man to another man, and of a woman to another woman, I began to feel sympathy towards him as a national leader. I am happy that our prime minister said the same. Garibashvili is a family son, he has an honest wife and he told Georgia that he protects the sanctity of the family, and that this is the priority for him“.

Asaval-Dasavali, 3-9 August

Avtandil Ungiadze, Orthodox Parents Union: „According to the statistics, 76% of people with AIDS are homosexual… These people have such perverse vision of reality that they are not useful to lead even a small group of people, let alone the government.“

„The children that live with same-sex couples very often become victims of sexual violence. Why do they take from children the right to receive care of mother and father?“

Geworld.ge, 29 July

Tamriko Chokhonelidze, singer: “I have a hysterical laughter when I imagine how men marry… I understand mother as a woman and father as a man! Wife – as a woman, and husband – as a man!“

Anti-Western sentiments: parties

Asaval-Dasavali, 20-26 July

Soso Jachvliani, Georgian Dream„In America, where they still have death penalty in many states, they should have abolished this punishment first, and then thought about their [LGBT] rights. You know who Americans are? In the 1970s they put blacks and whites into different seats in the buses.This is that same America, where they had guillotine until the late 1980s. At that time we were fans of Chabukiani and Parajanov over here, despite their different sexual orientation “... 

Obiektivi, Night Studio, 29 July

Ada Marshania, Patriots Alliance, Obiektivi anchor: „What are these Western values exactly?.. So, the sexual minorities’ rights come first... I don’t recall incidents regarding these people being persecuted in Georgia. And of course, this helps Russia, in a bad way... Of course, in these countries these minorities are more public and more free, but you know, there is complicated attitude towards these people, and propaganda is prohibited in many countries, so this is the state of these people in Europe“.

Asaval-Dasavali, 3-9 August

Vazha Otarashvili, Patriots Alliance: „Today Europe’s way is not the way of culture and civilization. It the way of sin.“

Asaval-Dasavali, 20-26 July

Elizbar Javelidze, People’s Assembly: "Legalization of same-sex marriage in America has put us in grave danger! This is an attack against God! I will remind those over here who were very happy about legalization of same-sex marriage in America about what happened in Tbilisi on 13 June! And if you continue blasphemy like this, much worse than the tragedy in the Vera gorge will happen!"

Geworld.ge, 29 July

Gia Burjanadze, People’s Assembly: „Do whatever you want in your own country [America], but how can you legalize the same thing in another country?! This will not just be on the agenda in Georgia, they will actually do this; because today the main threat in Georgia is lack of education – the people have been turned into a mass in the darkness, and these people in the darkness will do whatever they tell them to do“.

Anti-Western sentiments: former officials

Asaval-Dasavali, 27 July - 2 August

Temur Khachishvili, former Minister of Security: "Just recently USA legalized same-sex marriage and declared as a foreign policy priority achieving the same in all countries of the world... The “mental occupation” policy of the USA is much more damaging for our country that the take-over of territories by Russia! Territories are lost and recovered by countries, but if national identity is lost nobody will even want to recover these territories in Georgia!..

We Georgians need to find our place in the new world – either we support traditional values that have been formed over the centuries, the main basis of which was respect of Orthodox Christianity, family, moral life, or we transfer from freedom to, forgive my language, “assdom“.

Anti-Western sentiments: media

Obiektivi, Night Studio, 20 July

Nino Ratishvili, anchor: "We will be in front of the dilemma to do the bidding not of the American people, but official White House… When the Western leaders say that they are not interested in our culture, that’s the main issue“...

Obiektivi, Political Night, 26 July

Valery Kvaratskhelia, anchor: "We don’t condemn this poor LGBT society, they have problems of their own and they also have to exist in this world… But I condemn… just now we have seem four individuals, these four scoundrels who poison not just their country, but the whole world. One is US President, another – its Vice-President, the third is its former President, and the fourth is getting ready for becoming President.“

Obiektivi, Night Studio. 21 July

TV viewer: „They, the Americans, don’t have their own language, their own fatherland, religion, or history… I don’t like Russians, but between good, bad, and even worse options I choose them. This is even worse for me because it is killing me slowly, while that one can just kill me with a bomb... This one is slowly suffocating me with money, religion, way of life, and then in the end just buys everything here, so in the end I will be the cheapest workforce in my own country.“

Obiektivi, Night Studio, 25 July

TV viewer: „The West are nationless, sexless, traditionless colonizers“...

Geworld.ge, 12 August

David Mkheidze, author: „Russia is the only country which legally prohibited gay parades after the USA legalized same-sex marriage all over the country, and even more, with the mouth of Secretary of State John Kerry threatened the world with spreading of this “humane” act. At such a time the firm position of Putin’s Russia regarding this immoral filth is even more important and agreeable".

Geworld.ge, 22 July

Zurab Tsutskiride, journalist: “Despite “strategic partnership”, we’ll not allow spreading of America’s pederast experience in our country. Whatever law US Congress adopts and whatever decision their Supreme Court makes, homosexuality is not a normal thing, because it is against the laws of nature, an anomaly.“

Saqinform, 3 August

Arno Khidirbegishvili, Saqinformi editor: „On 28 June 2015, three days after legalization of same-sex marriage by the US Supreme Court, I addressed the Georgian people and called on my compatriots to decide: God or America? GOD or USA? The majority chose God, while the minority, which segregates people by the principle: “if he is not a pederast, he is Kremlin’s agent“…“

Anti-Western sentiments: clerics

Geworld.ge, 22 July

Archil Kituashvili, cleric: „Anti-Western sentiments grow because today the West is associated with filth… Georgian man is Christian by his ideology and values, and for the Christian worldview perversity is unacceptable...

They are forcing us and telling us directly: either you do whatever we tell you, or say good bye to EU and NATO… It was just like this in the past, when large countries wanted to conquer Georgia. Then they were demanding from our kings to reject Christianity and adopt the enemy’s religion in return for them keeping the throne. In fact...today Europe lives without God and the choice of the Europeans is godlessness; The West imposes on us the unchristian way of life and we cannot allow this, otherwise the Georgian nation is doomed.“


Geworld.ge, 5 August

Giorgi (Razmadze), the chief priest of Avchala St. Ketevan Church: „Anti-Western, especially anti-American sentiments get stronger because this nation commits a great lot of evil... Can you name a nation except Americans which used nuclear weapons in war and murdered hundreds of thousands of people, which nation can you name that has robbed the world in every way?“.

Anti-Western sentiments: public organizations

Geworld.ge, 22 July, Asaval-Dasavali, 27 July - 2 August, Saqinform, 3 August

Alexander Chachia, Globalization Problems Research Center: „The spread of the Western so called values brought moral decay and fall of traditional morals… Putin is trying to create alternative world power, which will oppose the Americans’ globalization project – the nations’ denationalization, destruction of traditional morals, religion and national identity.

Some are surprised why Americans are demanding legalization of pederast while it causes antipathy towards American among societies of various countries. Thing is, legalization of pederasty destroys the basis on which modern nations stand as cultural-historical phenomena. Pederasty destroys religion traditional morals, family values, moral values formed over the centuries, national traditions, and by this it turns people into easily controlled mob. Garibashvili was brought up in a Georgian family and for him legalization of pederast marriage means defying himself being Georgian!“ 

Geworld.ge, 22 July

Alexander Chachia, Globalization Problems Research Center: “When we became America’s “junior partner”, birth rates fell and mortality grew disastrously; plants and factories were sold for scrap; a third of Georgians emigrated and became service personnel in other countries; half of those who remained in the country are jobless; 20% of territories are lost, the remaining lands have been sold to Indians, Chinese, Pakistanis and others, while the pederasts with English-language banners gather and demand legalization of their right to the same-sex love. Another 10 years of such “partnership” and the Georgian people as a cultural community will just cease to exist”.

Asaval-Dasavali, 3-9 August

Avtandil Ungiadze, Orthodox Parents Union: „In the past propaganda of homosexuality in America was caused by the project according to which demographic processes were to be corrected and birth rates - decreased. Homosexuality was what they needed, since this is action against nature and does not produce breedingPay attention, prior to legalization of same-sex marriage the homosexuals for years had been conducting extremist-racist violence against the majority, gained abolition of criminal liability and demanded not just legalization of homosexuality, buy the right to conduct its propaganda... Our TV channels are occupied by the West, NGOs’ influence is also strong, while the government is helpless..“

Anti-Western sentiments: society

Asaval-Dasavali, 10-16 August

Lali Badurashvili, actor: „I don’t get it – if I must criticize Putin, why should I agree on everything with John Kerry, who says they will force us to adopt the law on same-sex marriage?!.. I will be against anyone who touches my mentality and traditions. If Russia cut our limbs, America is taking away our heart and soul.“ 

Geworld.ge, 29 July

Givi Sikharulidze, actor: „You know what Europe and USA are doing to us? They openly tell us: we’ll accept you to NATO, but in 200 years, if in your country marry wed other men and women – other women. And I say: damn Georgia of Sulkhan-Saba, Shota Rustaveli, Grigol Robakidze and Ilia Chavchavadze, if it achieves EU membership by legalization of sodomy and adoption of immorality! Damn Georgia and Georgian people, if they allow this and quietly accept the calamity dictated by outside powers!.“

Sexism: party

Kviris Palitra, 22 July

Soso Jachvliani, Georgian Dream: "No, “bozi” [“whore” in Georgian] means a beauty… But I did not go to them even for 10 rubles. I have said, I used to work with Soviet beauties too, but did not pay 10 rubles.... Before I married, did not I have a right to play and work? Svetlana Toma, Proklova, Vera Saranova, Ukrainian Galina, I also remember one Miss Russia, I am not even talking about Georgians"...

Domestic violence

Imedi, Imedis Kvira, 26 July

The Women’s Movement’s and NGOs’ common statement on discriminatory story aired by Imedis Kvira.

Kviris Chronika, 20-26 July

Madona Jashi, psychic: „However absurd this may seem to you, woman, this weak creature of beautiful sex, survived only because insults and conflict between the spouses often are followed by reconciliation and warm words.“

Gender stereotypes: media

Alia, 11 August

Source: myjane.ru

„It is up to you whether you believe that women choose men by the smell of their armpits, but the scientists, after this discovery, are planning to create “ideal deodorant”, which will allow the stronger sex to attract any woman.“ 

Alia, 11 August

Source: news.21.by

„According to one theory most of male whores are gays, whom are much more accessible and open than women.“ 

Saqinform, 3 August

Arno Khidirbegishvili, Saqinformi editor: „Since 2013, after Georgian Dream came to power, 9th TV Channel was closed and left the new government without a voice, at the mercy of press services and PR departments led by young girls, whose looks are proportional to their lack of professionalism.“

Sexism: society

Asaval-Dasavali, 20-26 July

Givi Sikharulidze, actor“Society girls” are considered a good tone among us. But what is this being “TV star – society girl”“?! This is called whoredom, that’s what it is! When you try 100 men and claim to be “free girl”, you are a whore and don’t know it! So our boys don’t marry a woman if the has not been “checked” a hundred times! They don’t want virgin girls anymore and marry whores!“

Newsletter was developed by Media Development Foundation (MDF) within the frameworks of the Promoting Integration, Tolerance and Awareness Program in Georgia, supported by USAID and implemented by UNAG.

Opinions and ideas provided in this newsletter are those of the Media Development Foundation (MDF) and do not represent the official position of the U.S. Agency for International Development and the UN Association of Georgia.